Mining and quarrying include the extraction of minerals occurring naturally as solids (coal and ores), liquids (petroleum) or gases (natural gas). Extraction can be achieved by different methods such as underground or surface mining, well operation, seabed mining etc.
This section includes supplementary activities aimed at preparing the crude materials for marketing, for example, crushing, grinding, cleaning, drying, sorting, concentrating ores, liquefaction of natural gas and agglomeration of solid fuels. These operations are often accomplished by the units that extracted the resource and/or others located nearby.
Mining activities are classified into divisions, groups and classes on the basis of the principal mineral produced. Divisions 05, 06 are concerned with mining and quarrying of fossil fuels (coal, lignite, petroleum, gas); divisions 07, 08 concern metal ores, various minerals and quarry products.
Some of the technical operations of this section, particularly related to the extraction of hydrocarbons, may also be carried out for third parties by specialised units as an industrial service which is reflected in division 09.